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‘I've come to the UK from abroad’
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Treaty Establishing the European Community
(Unfortunately this document seems to have disappeared from its previous home on the EU Web site. However, it has also been incorporated into the following document, for which a link is still available).

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU)

Directive 2004/38 of the European Parliament

The European rules about people who were working and are now looking for work are found in Directive. Oddly,the directive says nothing much useful about other job seekers, which means that everyone has to rely on the original treaty: you'll need to scroll down to Article 45 in the TFEU.

The Social Security (Persons from Abroad) Amendment regulations 2006 No.1026

The Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2006 No. 1003

The Social Security (Croatia) Amendment Regulations 2013 No. 1474

Welfare Benefits and Tax Credits Handbook 2014/15 (16th Edition), Child Poverty Action Group

'Involuntarily unemployed': circumstances in which claimant left work do not matter: Upper Tribunal Decision CH/3314/2005

Right to use contributions from one country towards entitlement in another: Regulation 883/04, on the co-ordination of social security systems (article 6)

The changes at the end of 2013 to late 2014 are covered by:

Income based Jobseeker's Allowance not payable for first three months: The Jobseeker’s Allowance (Habitual Residence) Amendment Regulations 2013 No. 3196

Restrictions regarding jobseekers and retained worker status: The Immigration (European Economic Area) (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations 2013 No.3032

Housing Benefit restrictions for some JSA claimants: The Housing Benefit (Habitual Residence) Amendment Regulations 2014 No. 539

Places total limit of 182 days (six months) as jobseeker/workseeker, unless claimant has been out of UK for at least 12 months: The Immigration (European Economic Area) (Amendment) Regulations 2014 No. 1451

Child Benefit and Child Tax Credit restrictions for jobseekers (and some others): Child Benefit (General) and Tax Credits (Residence)(Amendment) Regulations 2014 No. 1511

Reduces time as jobseeker/workseeker to 91 days: The Immigration (European Economic Area) (Amendment)(no.3) Regulations 2014 No. 2761

To get an idea of how it all fits together, it's worth looking at the Decision Maker's Guide, Part 3: Habitual Residence and Right to Reside. However, it does not, as of 24/11/2014, cover the most recent changes, reducing the limit from 182 to 91 days for jobseekers: this is covered in a memo, DMG 31/14 (Right to Reside as a Jobseeker)